Dry eye is a common condition in which the eyes are insufficiently lubricated, leading to itching, redness and pain. The dry eyes can become irritated because the lacrimal glands are not producing a sufficient number of tears, or because there is a chemical imbalance in the tears themselves. Natural tears require a particular chemical balance to lubricate the eyes efficiently.
Alleviating the symptoms of dry eyes is important. Left untreated, dry eyes have the potential to damage your vision. Dry eyes can be diagnosed after a thorough examination of the eyes, and tear film osmolality testing to evaluate tear concentration.
Causes of Dry Eyes
People usually begin experiencing dry eye symptoms as they age (they are more common in people older than 50), but they can also result from certain medications, medical conditions or injuries. Dry eyes tend to affect women more than men because of the hormonal changes that take place during pregnancy and menopause. Oral contraceptives can also affect the consistency of tears. Other causes of dry eye include the following:
- Antihistamines, decongestants and blood-pressure medications
- Rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, Sjögren’s syndrome and thyroid disease
- Environmental conditions such as smoke, wind, low humidity, or excessive sun
- Long-term contact lens use
- Eye injury
- Eye or eyelid surgery
- Inflammation of the eye (conjunctivitis or keratitis)
Any of these factors, alone or in combination, can affect the frequency or consistency of tears, either of which can lead to dry eyes.
Dry Eye Symptoms
Dry eye symptoms typically occur in both eyes, and include the following:
- Stinging, burning or scratchiness
- Eye fatigue
- Sensitivity to light
- Difficulty wearing contact lenses
- Excessive tearing
- Blurry vision
Dry eyes can damage eye tissues, leaving tiny abrasions on the surface that can impair vision. There are, however, many treatments for relieving dry eye symptoms, restoring eye health and protecting vision.
Dry Eye Treatment
Dry eye treatment depends on its cause and severity, as well as the patient’s overall health and personal preference.
Nonsurgical Dry Eye Treatment
Nonsurgical treatments, which include the following, are often effective:
- Deliberately blinking
- Increasing humidity levels at home or work
- Using artificial tears or a lubricating ointment
- Avoiding environmental irritants
- Eliminating medications that may be responsible
- Adding Omega-3 fatty acids to the diet or taking them as supplements
In many cases, simple lifestyle changes can alleviate dry-eye symptoms.
Surgical Dry Eye Treatment
If less invasive methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatments, which include the following, may be an option:
- Insertion of punctal plugs to limit tear drainage
- Punctal cautery to permanently close the drainage holes
- Treatment of an underlying disease
If an eyelid condition is causing dry eyes, eyelid surgery may be recommended.
If dry eyes are left untreated, it can lead to complications that include pain, corneal ulcers/scars or vision loss.
Preventing Dry Eye
There are steps that can be taken to prevent dry eye symptoms. Simple lifestyle modifications such as wearing protective glasses on windy days, and giving the eyes a break during reading or other tasks that require intense focus, can effectively reduce the frequency and severity of symptoms.
Dr. David Aizuss from Ophthalmology Associates of the Valley proudly serves patients in Encino, West Hills, Calabasas, Agoura Hills, Tarzana, Woodland Hills, Sherman Hills, and Reseda, CA with treatments for dry eyes. If you are experiencing dry eye symptoms, call (818) 907-1038 to schedule an appointment today!